REMOVING THE NEED FOR GEOLOGICAL
One of the nice features of Ben's Antipodal
Impact Theory is its ability to remove some of the over-elaborate explanations
that have become necessary to explain physical features when using the Standard
These over-elaborate explanations can remind one of the
mechanisms that were used by medieval astronomers who were wedded to a
geocentric model of the universe. If the earth were at the center of the
universe, as was the common assumption before Copernicus, Galileo and others
got into the act, then astronomers had difficulty explaining the retrograde
movements of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn (they could not see any planets out
farther than that until telescopes were involved).
Because these three
planets are located farther from the sun than the earth is, there are times
when their orbits look as if they are going backwards in the sky, rather than
moving in their usual paths. Ancient astronomers explained this phenomenon by
using the device of epicycles.
The epicycle model posits that each of
those planets orbits in a circle within a circle. Therefore, sometimes the
planet actually moves backwards because it is moving backwards faster in the
inner circle than it is moving forwards in the larger orbit.
Brahe and others were able to make more precise measurements of these planets'
movements. it became more difficult to explain the actual results using just
one epicycle ... it became epicycles on epicycles.
Of course, all
of these over-elaborate constructions were rendered unnecessary once the
heliocentric model was used. There was no need for epicycles anymore.
ELIMINATING GEOLOGICAL EPICYCLES
When Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory is used as the basis for
understanding the geological history of the earth, four significant geological
"epicycle" mechanisms of the current Standard Theory can be discarded.
1. Rare Mantle Plumes
2. Mysterious Low
Angle Farallon Plate Activity Forming the Rocky Mountains
Heavy Old Ocean Crust Involved With the Marianas Trench and the Challenger
4. The Many Conflicting Reasons Given for the Major
1. RARE MANTLE PLUMES
Theory posits that hotspots are created by "rare mantle plumes." The reason
given for these rare mantle plumes is the idea that they are a result of
interior convection currents forcing the release of heat from the interior of
While this explanation is possible, just as epicycles are
possible, this explanation is completely unnecessary once hotspots are viewed
from the perspective of Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory. According to this new
theory, hotspots are the logical antipodal result of a large impact from a
celestial object. No rare mantle plumes are needed. We don't need to spend time
worrying about when the next rare mantle plume will occur. Rare mantle plumes
If we stop the impacts, we stop any future hotspots. No
geological epicycles required.
2. THE MYSTERIOUSLY SHALLOW FARALLON
The NOVA television show on PBS has broadcast a one hour
documentary that attempts to explain the unusual fact that the Rocky Mountains
are located far to the interior of the North American Continent. This
documentary posits a mysteriously shallow angled subduction of the Farallon
Most mountain ranges come about as the result of uplift from a
subducting plate. These mountain ranges occur within a few hundred miles of the
subduction zone. The Rocky Mountains Mountains are located almost 1000 miles
from the supposed subduction zone between the Farallon Plate (an offshoot of
the Pacific Plate) and the North American Plate.
The only way for the
Standard Theory to explain this mysterious occurrence is to hypothesize the
scenario where the Farallon Plate is subducted at such a shallow angle that it
does not subduct into the mantle until almost 1000 miles later. This scenario
occurs nowhere else on earth.
However, given the mechanisms of the
Standard Theory, this is the best geological epicycle that can be trotted out.
Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory hypothesizes that the Eastern American
Continent collided with the broken tail of the Siberian Continent 80 MYA to 70
MYA. The Eastern American Continent, with its western edge composed of mafic
oceanic crust, was subducted under the Siberian Tail and caused the uplift of
the high plains and the Rocky Mountains behind them. It was subduction from the
east side, not the west side. No strange geological epicycles are required (see
3. THE MARIANAS TRENCH AND THE CHALLENGER DEEP
The lowest point on the ocean floor is the Marianas Trench, located to
the east of the Mariana Islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Not only is this
the deepest trench, but at the southern end of the Marianas Trench Arc is the
Challenger Deep, which extends several thousand feet below even the already
deepest trench on earth. Why is the Marianas Trench so Deep?
Why is the
Challenger Deep even several thousand feet lower still? Again, the NOVA
television show on PBS has broadcast a one hour documentary which explores
these questions. And, again, the answer is based upon the only plausible
explanation that can be extracted from the Standard Theory. And, again, the
show has to create a geological epicycle in order to accomplish this.
The NOVA documentary explains the depth of the Marianas Trench in
general and the Challenger Deep in particular as being the result of the
accumulated heaviness of the seafloor slab as it moves farther and farther from
the mid-ocean ridge in the Pacific and eventually, after millions and millions
of years, reaches its subduction point. The NOVA documentary posits that the
slab's heavy weight at the end point causes it to sink lower and open up a deep
gap at the point of subduction.
However, the documentary does not
explain why subducting slabs to the north and south (especially the south at
the Challenger Deep site) of the Marianas Trench are not as deep or deeper.
They also don't address the strange almost half-circle arc of the Marianas
Trench and why there is another seamount arc on a straighter line just behind
it to the west.
Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory addresses the issue of
the Marianas Trench in Chapter 2.4. According to this new theory, the Marianas
Trench is the trace remains of the crater impact of the object that caused the
uplift of the South American Continent at its antipode 132 MYA. The Marianas
Trench was caused by the deep annular ring of the trailing edge of the crater,
which took over the subduction function from the previous, shallower trench
that was located behind it. Once this subduction was taken over by the crater's
deep annular ring, the subduction system continued to replicate this structure
as the plate continued to be subducted ... much as a winding tidal river
continually retraces its looping path through a salt marsh as the tide goes in
It is especially important to note that the Challenger Deep is
located at the southern end of the Marianas Trench, which would have been the
eastern side of the leading edge of the impact, which we would expect to be the
deepest part of the annular ring at the edge of the crater.
important than this, the Marianas Trench goes from deep to deeper as it
approaches its southern end ... and then it stops! Why is this?
NOVA documentary doesn't address this question. Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory
explains it by realizing that once the southernmost part of an annular ring
from an impact has been reached, the annular ring would bend back to the north,
and, in this case, would have been already subducted, leaving no residual
Once again, rather than needing the construct of a geological
epicycle involving an increasingly heavy slab that occurs nowhere else on earth
(and without this concept extending to the neighboring slabs), Ben's Antipodal
Impact Theory explains the structure with ordinary impact physics. It even
explains the straighter line of seamounts to the west, behind the Marianas. No
geological epicycles required.
4. SOLVING THE MAJOR MASS EXTINCTIONS
The Standard Theory relies on several different possible mechanisms to explain
the earth's major mass extinctions.
1. Impacts of Cosmic Objects
4. Lowering Sea Levels
Based upon the Standard Theory, we are all
just one unhappy random accident away from total annihilation. It is as though
we are constantly spinning a wheel of fortune, wondering which random
geological accident will destroy us next.
But, as we have seen from
examining Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory, these supposedly independent causes of
the major mass extinctions are all the result of just one thing: Impacts and
the impact effects at the antipode of the impact. In other words, if we stop
the impacts, we stop the extinctions.
There are no nefarious geological
extinction monsters waiting to come out of the closet. There are only impacts.
And we can control impacts.
The fiction that we are at the mercy of any
one of a number of possible extinction monsters is a myth of the Standard
Theory. It is a real pleasure to put this geological epicycle out of its
A new theory
should do more than just explain the same facts in a slightly different way. It
should be able to clean up lots of messy stuff that the old theory could never
really deal with very well.
While there are many facets of Ben's
Antipodal Impact Theory which create a simpler, more logical explanation for
the physical evidence that exists today, I believe that these four examples are
the best illustrations of this new theory removing the need for the geological
epicycles of the current Standard Theory.