Reduced Friction in the Crust and Mantle
Several papers in 2015 indicated that the friction
between the rocks in the Earth's crust or mantle could be significantly
lessened under special circumstances.
Previous sources have
hypothesized that water in the crust or mantle would allow for the reduction of
friction between rocks, especially during episodes of extreme earthquake
shaking. The question is this: Is there really water in the lower crust or in
Five different articles outline the possibilities of water
being present in the mantle and how it reacts to reduce friction when under
Six other articles deal with the reduction of friction under
circumstances of shaking and pressure even if water is not present.
Typical of the mechanisms of frictional reduction is a story by Iqbal
Pittalwaia based upon materials provided by the University of California -
Riverside. Professor Harry W. Green reports "that a universal sliding mechanism
operates for earthquakes of all depths- from from the deep ones all the way up
to the crustal ones. The physics of the sliding is the self-lubrication of the
earthquake fault by flow of a new material consisting of tiny new crystals, the
Another article, entitled "Research redefines the
properties of faults when rock melts," based upon the work of Yan Lavallee, et
al., reports as follows: "
The researchers, from the University's School
of environmental Services, warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous
analyses to describe molten rock along faults, and instead call for more
realistic application of viscoelastic theory. "Melt may be considered a liquid,
which is able to undergo a glass transition, as a result of changing
temperature and/or strain-rate. This catastrophic transition allows the melt to
either flow or fracture, according to the fault slip conditions."
article later reports, "Professor Lavallee added: "This new description of
fault slip is not just important for our understanding of earthquake fault
rheology, it has far reaching implications for magma transport in volcanic
eruptions, for landslide and sector collapse instabilities, and within material
sciences; namely for the glass and ceramic industries."
The reason that
these articles and papers are important to my theory is the fact that I propose
that extreme shaking and pressure created by large cosmic impacts has allowed
contemporaneous mantle plumes to break through the mantle. These articles and
papers provide more evidence that this type of event can be possible.