Essay 1

by Ben Fishler

I propose a radical revision to an old theory that has been long abandoned by modern geologists. The theory is the antipodal focusing theory. This theory postulates that the earthquake and pressure forces of a very large cosmic impact will focus at the exact opposite side of the Earth, which is called the antipode. In light of modern objections, the theory may sound crazy … but the evidence overwhelmingly supports it. I want to drill a hole in southern Georgia to prove that this theory is valid.

This revised theory would imply that the huge volcanic eruptions that created the Deccan traps in India 66 MYA were caused by the dinosaur-killing asteroid impact of 66 MYA. However, the antipodal focusing theory was abandoned for three seemingly powerful reasons.

I believe that the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs 66 MYA impacted and penetrated the Earth's crust in southern Georgia … and it left evidence of the impact and evidence of the Earth's mantle's response to this penetration. I want to investigate this evidence. I want to examine and date the drill cores at the site.

Now if you are knowledgeable about the dinosaur-killing impact 66 MYA, I can hear your immediate question: "Hey, wait a minute Ben. There's a crater of approximately 120 miles in diameter that dates to 66 MYA that's located in Chicxulub, Mexico. Scientists say that Chicxulub is the location of the asteroid impact."

The scientists are right about the Chicxulub crater being related to the asteroid impact. But they're wrong about the impact site. The Chicxulub crater is the top part of the impact remnant. The actual impact occurred in southern Georgia, where there is a 120 mile-in-diameter, buried, "ancient volcano complex."

This "ancient volcano complex" supposedly dates to the Triassic period (201 - 252 MYA) and, supposedly, may have something to do with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Provinces (CAMP), according to the current scientific theory. This theory is wrong. When we eventually get the chance to drill and date the volcanism, it will weigh in at 66 MYA or younger. It will turn out that the crater in Chicxulub is only the remnant of the top part of the impact. It was pushed to its current location (along with millions of tons of Georgia and Florida limestone) in an impact landslide by the horizontal component of the force of this gigantic angled impact as it opened up the Gulf of Mexico (which did not exist previously).


How can I be so assertive in these statements? What makes me think that I am right and so many geologists are wrong about this?

The evidence. The evidence backs me up in so many ways that it is statistically inconceivable that my theory will lose this battle. I feel very confident in these assertions because I'm not just looking at the dinosaur-killing asteroid. I'm looking at ALL the large impacts and their effects on the Earth. My research has led me to believe that the original antipodal focusing theory (that was considered and then discarded when the Chicxulub crater was found) was right all along. The scientists just gave up on it too soon!

The antipodal focusing theory is built around the idea that, when an impact occurs, the earthquake waves radiate around the globe and meet, significantly diminished, at the antipode (the exact opposite side of the Earth) of the impact. This focusing effect would pulverize the Earth's crust at this point. The pressure waves and shear waves could cause antipodal volcanism. The theory gets vague from that point on because of the theoretical roadblocks that it runs into. I deal with these roadblocks in my version of the theory.

There were three main reasons why scientists gave up on the antipodal focusing theory. These reasons are:

1. India and the large amounts of contemporaneous volcanism of the Deccan traps were more than 4,000 miles from being antipodal to the asteroid impact 66 MYA. WRONG — They were antipodal (see the essay "Six Erroneous Geological Assertions That Argue Against My Theory").

2. Nothing can move through the Earth's mantle at a speed faster than one inch per year. Therefore, an antipodal mantle plume couldn't be contemporaneous with an impact. It would take 100 million years to get through the mantle. WRONG — The extreme vibration from a huge impact (estimated at 12.4 on the Richter scale) would temporarily loosen the hold of friction (see the essay "Six Erroneous Geological Assertions That Argue Against My Theory").

3. Impacts do not penetrate the Earth's crust. WRONG— Extremely large impacts can and do penetrate the Earth's crust. There is convincing evidence that the six documented very large impacts of the past 150 million years have penetrated the Earth's crust and produced mantle plumes with directed motion at or near the antipode of the impact (see the essay "Six Erroneous Geological Assertions That Argue Against My Theory").

Most geologists are unwilling to consider this evidence against the “factual framework” that they were taught. To them, it seems like an open and shut case. They see three significant reasons why the antipodal focusing theory won't work. Why should they consider antipodal focusing as an alternative that is worth pursuing?


The evidence for an updated, radically revised version of the antipodal focusing theory is not limited to the last six documented very large impacts of the last 150 million years. The evidence includes a whole host of physical evidence that has not been considered in this light. This new theory provides a whole new lens through which to view impacts, antipodal volcanism and extinctions.

A comparison of the evidence for the current theory compared to this new look at an updated antipodal focusing theory is extensively summarized in the essays entitled "Why This New Theory Fits The Evidence Better Than the Current Theory" and "More Evidence After We Drill."

The updated antipodal focusing theory also hypothesizes that there will be a "mascon" (a concentration of volcanic mass) at the entry point of the penetration of the Earth's crust by the impacting asteroid 66 MYA (as the mantle rebounds to fill the void). However, this volcanism will be significantly blocked by ocean floor debris brought in by huge tsunamis triggered by the impact. Since the volcanism at the Deccan traps occurred at approximately 30° south latitude (per Dr. Hetu Sheth), the mascon should be found at approximately 30° north latitude, if it was truly antipodal.


Because the updated antipodal focusing theory predicted a mascon at 30° north latitude, I had been on the lookout for something anomalous and volcanic in the northern Florida or southern Alabama or Georgia area. But I wasn't having much success. The geological maps of Georgia and Florida indicated that there was a huge amount of basement limestone missing. But they didn't show any crater or any volcanism. And then the report on an expedition to the Chicxulub crater reported that there was no sulfur to be found in the crater. It had all been vaporized by the impact. I realized that if the top of the crater was pushed to Chicxulub in an impact landslide and that if the crater top had no sulfur remaining in it, then the bottom of the crater back in Georgia might be in the same condition. Furthermore, if the crater in Georgia were filled with ocean floor debris by the inevitable huge tsunamis that the impact would produce, then the sand in the crater would have no sulfur … and this could explain the mystery of the eat-like-an-apple sulfurless Vidalia onions.

Imagine my surprise when I found that magnetic and gravitational surveys over southern Georgia showed a mysterious "ancient volcano complex" of approximately 120 miles in diameter that had no business being there (see the essay "The Volcano That Shouldn't Exist"). The discoverer (correctly according to the current theory) attributed this volcanism to ancient activity in the Triassic period (201 - 252 MYA). When we drill this site, I am certain that we will find that the volcanism will date to 66 MYA or younger, while the sandstone above it will date to 66 MYA or older. This volcanism was a mascon, not a volcano.

Carl Sagan was fond of saying that extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof. The drilling evidence will certainly provide the extraordinary proof. Then geologists can realize that the extraordinary claims really weren't all that extraordinary after all … it was just that they were ambushed by being taught "facts" that weren't quite true.

It was antipodal focusing right from the beginning. The scientists just weren't ready to understand it.

An interesting sidelight is the fact that Vidalia onions don't actually grow in the area over the mascon, because the sand and sandstone were resulfurized by the volcanism there. Instead, the sulfurless Vidalia onions grow in the area to the northeast of this impact area. The area northeast of the impact site is a zone where significant amounts of limestone would have been vaporized by the angled impact and immediately later filled with ocean floor debris … but it would not have been resulfurized by the mascon, making it ideal for growing Vidalia onions.

The full, unabridged, updated antipodal focusing theory can be read at