Ben's Revised Antipodal
by Ben Fishler
Ben's Revised Antipodal
Focusing Theory (BRAFT) explains most occurences of mantle plumes, hotspots,
plate tectonics, continent formation, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and mass
extinctions as the natural result of very large or huge cosmic impacts. It is
even possible that ALL of these phenomena are the result of cosmic impacts.
recognizes that small or medium sized cosmic impacts are unlikely to have more
than significant regional effects, at most. These impacts are not large enough
to penetrate the Earth's crust.
However, very large (producing
craters of at least 50 km diameter in size) or huge (producing craters of at
least 85 km diameter in size) cosmic impacts are a completely different story.
A very large
cosmic impact can penetrate the Earth's crust. The extra directed pressure will
force liquid material from the outer edge of the Earth's liquid core and the
adjoaining mantle to penetrate the now-permeable mantle (permeable due to the
extreme vibration from magnitude 12+ impact earthquakes) causing a mantle plume
to shoot to the underside of the Earth's crust at a point called the energy
antipode. This energy antipode point will be somewhat close to the physical
antipode of the impact, but somewhat distant due to the off-center nature of
the impact object's path through the mantle and the forward overbalance of
impact pressure. The mantle plume will eventually cause a hotspot as the mantle
plume melts its way to the surface.
Whereas very large cosmic
impacts can cause regional devastation at the impact site and a mantle plume
and an eventual hotspot at the energy antipode, a huge impact can have much
more significant and devastating effects.
A huge impact can create such
a strong mantle plume that the pressure and volume of the plume will cause the
plume to spread out underneath the Earth's surface and actually lift up a
signifricant amount of that crust, itself. It will create a separate continent
and tectonic plate with the edge of this continent "unzippering" from
neighboring crust along a line where the pressure is just enough to overcome
the effects of gravity and crustal shear strength. Shortly thereafter, it will
begin to subside.
This continent (which is also a complete tectonic plate) and
its hotspot will be given a directed motion by the mantle plume, reflecting the
angle of impact and off-center nature of the hit. This continent will move as
an untethered feature on the surface of the crust, greatly affected by the
coriolis effect in its movement. The hotspot will follow behind at a slower
speed because it is tethered to the liquid core and must melt its way
horizontally through the mantle, as it travels the same directed path as the
continent (but without the benefit of permeable vibrational assistance, after
the impact earthquakes subside).
A huge impact will create such
a strong mantle plume that its hotspot will force its way to the surface
immediately after impact and create a LIP. The lava will follow the path of
least resistance, which means that it will escape to the surface at the site of
the physical antipode, where the rocks have already been pulverized by the
focusing effect of the earthquake waves. If the physical antipode happens to be
at the edge of the new continent (as in the Deccan traps 66
MYA and the Siberian traps 252
MYA), the lava will create a huge LIP at that location. If the physical
antipode happens to be in the interior of the continent, the lava will make its
way to the edge via crack propagation and deposit its LIP there (Parana
Etandeka traps 132 MYA and the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Provinces) 201
shape of a newly formed continent will be "a blob with a tail." This shape will
occur because of the extra pressure nearer to the impact, forcing more uplift
in that direction. South America is the quintessential example of this shape
(slightly misshapen on the western side due to its millions of years of running
into the Pacific plate).
All of the recent mass extinctions of the past 252 million
years correlate with the huge impacts and can explained by their effects. These
mass extinctions and their correlative huge impacts are:
ENGLAND SEA MTS
||??INDIAN OCEAN ??
|| INDONESIA (LAKE
The primary proximate cause
of the world-wide mass extinctions shown above was the explosive and continuous
volcanism of the LIPs that were formed by these impacts. This explosive and
continuous volcanism would have blocked the sunlight for millenia, causing a
shut down of the plant growth cycle.
The notable exception to this
scenario is the Valanginian-Weissert Oceanic Anoxic Event 132 MYA. It was truly
a major extinction in the sea, but not on land. Why?
Although it was arguably the
biggest impact of them all, the impact 132 MYA that created the
Marianas/Challenger deep trench (which took over the subduction function from
the Mariana trough and continues as a self-repicating scar today) actually
occurred in the middle of the Pacific ocean, so there was no regional land
damage from the impact except for the tsunamis. But, mostly, there was a lack
of explosive volcanism, because the volcanism was not moving into the path of
water-laden subducted crust, as was the case with the three other LIPs. The
African part of the Parana Etendekja traps just sat there and didn't move. The
South American part moved west with the whole continent in front of it. It
didn't run into any water-laden subducting crust. Thus, there was no water to
turn to steam and cause explosive eruptions, throwing huge amounts of sulfur
dioxide into the atmosphere.
Trying to look back beyond 252 MYA is a fool's errand. The
Earth erases, erodes, hides and subducts much of the evidence from the distant
past. If I am right about the location of India 66 MYA (4,000 miles away from
where most geologists place it), then how productive can our guesses be about
things that are even more than 200 million years older?
Suffice it to say that at this
point it seems that ALL of the more recent mass extinctions can be explained by
the BRAFT theory
and maybe all of the older ones, too.