There have been six major (and many minor) extinction events on earth since the evolution of multicellular life on the earth more than 500 million years ago (MYA).

The reasons given for these major extinction events have been many. These many reasons are still put forth by different groups of scientists, with no clear answer emerging for any one major extinction, much less for all of them.

I believe that all of the major extinctions and most of the minor extinctions can be explained by the same phenomenon. This explanatory phenomenon is: The natural kinetic effects of a cosmic impact on the planet Earth. However, it is not the impact site of the cosmic impact that causes the biggest part of a major extinction event. Rather, it is the devastating, sustained and explosive volcanism that results at the antipode (the exact opposite side of the earth) of the impact site that does the most damage. This book introduces a new theory of antipodal impact effects, called Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory, that will explain the mechanisms that cause both the geological features created during and after big impacts and how those geological features cause extinction events.

This book is divided into two sections.



The first section of this book deals with antipodal volcanism as the primary cause of the major mass extinctions over the past 500 million years on Earth.

This first section is based upon solid, documented theory and backed by statistical analysis.

This first section will detail a mechanism whereby a large impact can cause volcanism at or near the antipode of the impact. This section will also provide a conservative (compared to the speculative explanation in the second section) explanation of how the Deccan traps were actually located at the antipode of the Chicxulub impact, instead of more than 4,000 miles away (as located by the Standard Theory).

This explanation will establish the Chicxulub impact as the cause of the Deccan traps and the Deccan traps as the cause of the End-Cretaceous extinction. By extension, the other major mass extinctions are also likely to be the logical consequence of volcanism at the antipodes of large impacts.



The second section of this book presents a more speculative (but, in my opinion, more likely) version of the creation of the Deccan traps as part of a process of creating an antipodal tectonic plate. The antipodal tectonic plate is created by the uplifting pressure of the plume head and by shear crack propagation along the marginal shear pressure boundary.

The second section also hypothesizes hotspots with directed movement and antipodal continents with directed movement. Furthermore, it challenges the need for convection currents as a regular part of every day life in the Earth's mantle.

The second section will provide likely scenarios for:

Major Mass Extinctions

1. The End-Cretaceous Extinction 65 MYA
2. The Triassic Extinction 202 MYA
3. The Permian Extinction 250 MYA

Creation of Continents and Their Tectonic Plates

1. India 65 MYA
2. South America 132 MYA
3. Eastern North America 202 MYA
4. Western Antarctica 214 MYA
5. Siberia 250 MYA
6. Creation of the Moon 4 BYA

I will present compelling evidence that the volcanism of the Deccan traps in India actually WAS at the antipode of the Chicxulub impact site 65 MYA (even though no one has previously been able to show compelling evidence of India being located at this site).

This is an ambitious book. It seeks to explain the formation of continents, hotspots, trenches, island arcs and tectonic movements in novel ways.

The first section of this book hypothesizes the proposition that kinetic energy transfer from large cosmic impacts causes major antipodal volcanism. This book proposes that most of the important results of large impacts occur at and near the antipode of the impact site.

The second section of this book proposes the idea that continents are uplifted on the opposite side of the earth during a really big cosmic impact. Because of the directional nature of the impacts (most impacts occur at 30 degree to 45 degree angles to vertical) and the off-center nature of the impact, the resulting continental shape is "a blob with a tail." The directional nature of the impact induces forward motion in those newly formed continents and also in antipodal hotspots that are not powerful enough to thrust up a continent.

At least some of the trenches are created as the earth is ripped apart by passing plates and mini-plates resulting from the antipodal effect of the impact. This book will create a complete picture of the Chicxulub antipodal "smoking gun." It will identify and explain the components of the smoking gun for several other impacts, as well, including an explanation of the creation of Siberia, Western Antarctica, Eastern North America and South America. The book will also give reasons to believe that the other major extinctions have similar characteristics, even though specific components of the smoking gun for each event may be shrouded (or eroded or subducted) in the mists of time.

This book will also propose a new mechanism for determining the movement of plates and continents on earth over the millennia, much like Cepheid variable stars are used in astronomy to measure distance. Since this book will show conclusively that India was NOT where it supposedly was 65 MYA according to the Standard Theory, it stands to reason that some other modeling projections of plate tectonic movement may be incorrect, also. The new mechanism may help to solve that problem.

This book will list and explore several geological phenomena that are better explained by Ben's Antipodal Theory than by the current Standard Theory.

Lastly, this book will make the case for man and his modern technology as the only true answer to the question of the ecological survival of this planet.