This book is an updated and revised version of a book that I wrote in 2010 with an almost identical title.

The original version, entitled "Solving the Major Extinctions," contained several geologically impossible errors. After reviewing the comments of several members of the Geology2 group at, I found that I needed to completely revise my mechanism for impact energy transfer. I also found that I had to revise my understanding of the geological characteristics of the earth's surface.

This new book, now entitled "Solving the Mass Extinctions," incorporates these revisions, as well as new statistical evidence that I developed during the past few years.

This new book is now divided into two sections of evidentiary text. The first section deals with solid, conservative evidence backed by statistical analysis.

The second section deals with speculative insights that extend the scope of the theory and apply it to impacts and extinctions over the past 250 million years.

The third section of the book draws conclusions from the evidence presented in the book. The original book can be viewed at


This book has been written and amended over the course of six years. During that time, I have added key insights and modified some of the concepts. However, some of the original writing does not fully reflect those changes. The purpose of the following paragraphs is to highlight the major differences that have evolved over the past six years. In this way I hope to clarify some confusion that earlier wording might cause for a reader.

One major change in concept is the realization that the large impacts that cause mantle plumes actually penetrate the Earth's crust and travel into the mantle. Furthermore, really large impacts will travel all the way through the mantle and cause uplift on the other side of the Earth's crust at an attempted (but failed) exit location (e.g. the Chicxulub impact and the uplift of Zealandia). The early writing in the book speaks to the transfer of high pressure shock wave energy as the major factor in causing mantle plumes and antipodal continental uplift. I now realize that it is the penetrating impact object, itself, that delivers the high pressure wave energy.

Another possible source of confusion is the fact that I now have strong evidence that the Chicxulub impact object actually hit the Earth and penetrated the Earth in southern Georgia. Although I explain this in detail in Chapter 2.5, throughout the book I still refer to the impact as the Chicxulub impact. While this could lead the reader to think that I believe that the impact occurred in Chicxulub, Mexico, I, instead, believe that the impact occurred in southern Georgia and that the angled energy of the impact created an impact landslide, moving a significant slab of the Earth's crust and the top half of the crater to its present location in Mexico.